HD1, a Thrombin-directed Aptamer, Binds Exosite 1 on Prothrombin with High Affinity and Inhibits Its Activation by Prothrombinase
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Incorporation of prothrombin into the prothrombinase complex is essential for rapid thrombin generation at sites of vascular injury. Prothrombin binds directly to anionic phospholipid membrane surfaces where it interacts with the enzyme, factor Xa, and its cofactor, factor Va. We demonstrate that HD1, a thrombin-directed aptamer, binds prothrombin and thrombin with similar affinities (K(d) values of 86 and 34 nm, respectively) and attenuates prothrombin activation by prothrombinase by over 90% without altering the activation pathway. HD1-mediated inhibition of prothrombin activation by prothrombinase is factor Va-dependent because (a) the inhibitory activity of HD1 is lost if factor Va is omitted from the prothrombinase complex and (b) prothrombin binding to immobilized HD1 is reduced by factor Va. These data suggest that HD1 competes with factor Va for prothrombin binding. Kinetic analyses reveal that HD1 produces a 2-fold reduction in the k(cat) for prothrombin activation by prothrombinase and a 6-fold increase in the K(m), highlighting the contribution of the factor Va-prothrombin interaction to prothrombin activation. As a high affinity, prothrombin exosite 1-directed ligand, HD1 inhibits prothrombin activation more efficiently than Hir(54-65)(SO(3)(-)). These findings suggest that exosite 1 on prothrombin exists as a proexosite only for ligands whose primary target is thrombin rather than prothrombin.
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