We previously reported the ability of isoprostanes to induce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In this study, we examined the signaling mechanisms underlying that phenomenon with the standard muscle bath technique. Responses to a threshold concentration of carbachol (CCh, 3 × 10−9 M) were significantly augmented by pretreatment for 20 min with 8-isoprostaglandin E2 (15-E2t-IsoP, 10−6 M): this AHR was obliterated in tissues pretreated with the selective Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 added 20 min before isoprostane, but not by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Increasing the CCh concentration to 3 × 10−8 M (still considerably less than the half-maximally effective concentration of CCh) evoked larger contractions that were also augmented significantly by 15-E2t-IsoP: this AHR was completely abolished in tissues pretreated with CPA as well as those pretreated with Y-27632. We noted, however, that Y-27632 and CPA profoundly effect baseline tone and the cholinergic response per se, which confounds the interpretation of the data summarized above. We therefore modified the protocol by using combinations of CCh and blocker (CPA, Y-27632, or nifedipine) that were equieffective. In this way, we found that AHR could not be demonstrated under conditions in which Rho/ROCK signaling or Ca2+ release was abolished (by Y-27632 and CPA, respectively). Likewise, other autacoids that act through G protein-coupled receptors via Rho/ROCK and Ca2+ release (serotonin, histamine) mimicked this effect of isoprostane, whereas bradykinin did not. We conclude that isoprostane-induced AHR is mediated in part through an action on Rho/ROCK signaling. This novel finding may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AHR and asthma.