Dynamin Interacts with Members of the Sumoylation Machinery
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Dynamin is a GTP-binding protein whose oligomerization-dependent assembly around the necks of lipid vesicles mediates their scission from parent membranes. Dynamin is thus directly involved in the regulation of endocytosis. Sumoylation is a post-translational protein modification whereby the ubiquitin-like modifier Sumo is covalently attached to lysine residues on target proteins by a process requiring the concerted action of an activating enzyme (ubiquitin-activating enzyme), a conjugating enzyme (ubiquitin carrier protein), and a ligating enzyme (ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase). Here, we show that dynamin interacts with Sumo-1, Ubc9, and PIAS-1, all of which are members of the sumoylation machinery. Ubc9 and PIAS-1 are known ubiquitin carrier protein and ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase enzymes, respectively, for the process of sumoylation. We have identified the coiled-coil GTPase effector domain (GED) of dynamin as the site on dynamin that interacts with Sumo-1, Ubc9, and PIAS-1. Although we saw no evidence of covalent Sumo-1 attachment to dynamin, Sumo-1 and Ubc9 are shown here to inhibit the lipid-dependent oligomerization of dynamin. Expression of Sumo-1 and Ubc9 in mammalian cells down-regulated the dynamin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin, whereas dynamin-independent fluid-phase uptake was not affected. Furthermore, using high resolution NMR spectroscopy, we have identified amino acid residues on Sumo-1 that directly interact with the GED of dynamin. The results suggest that the GED of dynamin may serve as a scaffold that concentrates the sumoylation machinery in the vicinity of potential acceptor proteins.