Just-in-Time Continuing Education: Perceived and Unperceived, Pull and Push Taxonomy Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Abstract We live in a world where “just-in-time” (JiT) methodologies are increasingly used. Continuing professional development (CPD), including faculty development, has the opportunity to leverage online technologies in a JiT format to further support learner engagement and program sustainability. In this article, the authors propose a model that can serve as a taxonomy for defining and implementing JiT continuing education (JiTCE). The anatomy of JiTCE describes four mechanisms to address CPD needs and delivery procedures: perceived and unperceived, as well as pull and push (PUPP) taxonomy. JiTCE PUPP taxonomy defines four components for designing and developing a program with JiT: on-demand learning, subscription-based learning, performance feedback–driven learning, and data-driven learning. These methods, as backbones, use various online technologies, which offer fundamental support for JiTCE. Delivery systems and technologies are provided as specific examples for JiTCE throughout the article. JiTCE introduces a novel taxonomy to meet continuing education needs and provides an organized approach to design and deploy programming in a sustainable way. Online technologies are evolving everyday and are an indispensable part of both clinical practice and medical education. Pull–push and perceived–unperceived axes can help guide new opportunities for instructional designers and curriculum developers to leverage best practices to align with CPD offerings, which include cutting-edge technologies.


  • Yilmaz, Yusuf
  • Papanagnou, Dimitrios
  • Fornari, Alice
  • Chan, Teresa

publication date

  • 2022