Gut microbiota-based vaccination engages innate immunity to improve blood glucose control in obese mice
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OBJECTIVE: Obesity and diabetes increase circulating levels of microbial components derived from the gut microbiota. Individual bacterial factors (i.e., postbiotics) can have opposing effects on blood glucose. METHODS: We tested the net effect of gut bacterial extracts on blood glucose in mice using a microbiota-based vaccination strategy. RESULTS: Male and female mice had improved glucose and insulin tolerance five weeks after a single subcutaneous injection of a specific dose of a bacterial extract obtained from the luminal contents of the upper small intestine (SI), lower SI, or cecum. Injection of mice with intestinal extracts from germ-free mice revealed that bacteria were required for a microbiota-based vaccination to improve blood glucose control. Vaccination of Nod1-/-, Nod2-/-, and Ripk2-/- mice showed that each of these innate immune proteins was required for bacterial extract injection to improve blood glucose control. A microbiota-based vaccination promoted an immunoglobulin-G (IgG) response directed against bacterial extract antigens, where subcutaneous injection of mice with the luminal contents of the lower SI elicited a bacterial extract-specific IgG response that is compartmentalized to the lower SI of vaccinated mice. A microbiota-based vaccination was associated with an altered microbiota composition in the lower SI and colon of mice. Lean mice only required a single injection of small intestinal-derived bacterial extract, but high fat diet (HFD)-fed, obese mice required prime-boost bacterial extract injections for improvements in blood glucose control. CONCLUSIONS: Subversion of the gut barrier by vaccination with a microbiota-based extract engages innate immunity to promote long-lasting improvements in blood glucose control in a dose-dependent manner.
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