Cross-resistance to cisplatin in cells resistant to photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy.
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This study shows that a Photofrin-induced photodynamic therapy-resistant variant (RIF-8A) of a radiation-induced fibrosarcoma-1 cell line (RIF-1) is cross-resistant to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin). This is the first study to show cross-resistance to cisplatin in photodynamic therapy-resistant variants in vitro. Resistance does not appear to be the result of elevated glutathione levels since neither the resistant variant (RIF-8A) nor the parental line (RIF-1) varied in total glutathione levels. However, cisplatin-DNA adduct levels differed significantly between the two cell types. Immediately following a 1-h exposure to cisplatin (50 microM), RIF-1 cells contained 44.6 +/- 2.0 (SEM) pg platinum/micrograms DNA while RIF-8A cells contained 24.8 +/- 6.3 pg platinum/micrograms DNA. In addition, the resistant variant had decreased plasma and mitochondrial membrane potentials. The plasma and mitochondrial membranes of the resistant variant accumulated 3- and 3.6-fold less rhodamine 123, respectively. The difference in rhodamine 123 accumulation could not be attributed to elevated P-glycoprotein expression because both the parental line and the variant contained similar amounts of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, alterations in the plasma and/or mitochondrial membrane potentials may provide cells with a survival advantage when challenged with either photodynamic therapy or cisplatin in vitro. This appears to be a novel mechanism of resistance.
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