Effect of deoxynivalenol on the porcine acquired immune response and potential remediation by a novel modified HSCAS adsorbent
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The objective of this study was to determine the immunotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in weaning piglets, and potential efficacy of a modified hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to reduce DON toxicity. Four groups of 21-day-old male piglets (n = 7/group) were fed a control diet or diet containing 1.0 or 3.0 mg DON/kg, or 3.0 mg DON/kg plus 0.05% modified HSCAS for 4 weeks. Compared to the control, the DON diets decreased serum porcine circovirus antibody titer and the dermal hypersensitivity response to OVA at day 21 or 28. DON also induced focal necrosis and proliferation of cortical lymphocytes and apoptosis and increased the total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione, protein carbonyl concentrations in thymus. DON increased thymus mRNA, protein and (or) enzyme levels, cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) and apoptosis-related genes (Caspase-3), while hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) decreased. Intriguingly, the modified HSCAS alleviated the DON-induced changes on serum antibody titer, and thymic histopathology, apoptosis, redox status, inflammation and apoptosis signaling. In conclusion, these findings help to explain the toxic effects and mechanisms of DON and demonstrated the modified HSCAS adsorbent could be used to reduce the toxicity of DON in weaning piglets.
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