- In summary, we have been able to demonstrate that adenovirus vectors are valuable tools in examining the roles played by individual cytokines in lung responses and inflammation. These viral vectors have marked trophism for the epithelial cells of the lung and are highly efficient in transferring the genes into these lining cells. This results in significant expression of cytokines both within the lumen and the parenchyma of the lung. As a result of an individual cytokine being overexpressed, there are cytokine-specific changes seen-IL-6 resulting in lymphocytosis, MIP2 resulting in neutrophil accumulation, RANTES resulting in monocyte accumulation, TGF beta resulting in monocytosis but no fibrosis, and GM-CSF most surprisingly resulting in tissue eosinophilia, granuloma formation, and subsequently the onset of fibrosis. These vectors have helped pinpoint the role of a number of the cytokines in inducing chronic inflammatory changes to the lung and imply that a single cytokine may not be the only trigger resulting in chronic changes within the lung parenchyma.