Identification of a Novel Pathway Essential for the Immediate-Early, Interferon-Independent Antiviral Response to Enveloped Virions
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Viral infection elicits the activation of numerous cellular signal transduction pathways, leading to the induction of both innate and adaptive immunity. Previously we showed that entry of virion particles from a diverse array of enveloped virus families was capable of eliciting an interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-mediated antiviral state in human fibroblasts in the absence of interferon production. Here we show that extracellular regulated kinase 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase activities are not required for antiviral state induction. In contrast, treatment of cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) family, prevents the induction of interferon-stimulated gene 56 (ISG56) and an antiviral response upon entry of virus particles. However, the prototypic class I p85/p110 PI3 kinase and its downstream effector Akt/PKB are dispensable for ISG and antiviral state induction. Furthermore, DNA-PK and PAK1, LY294002-sensitive members of the PI3 kinase family shown previously to be involved in IRF-3 activation, are also dispensable for ISG and antiviral state induction. The LY294002 inhibitor fails to prevent IRF-3 homodimerization or nuclear translocation upon virus particle entry. Together, these data suggest that virus entry triggers an innate antiviral response that requires the activity of a novel PI3 kinase family member.
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