Mapping of Steroids Binding to 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Using Monte Carlo Energy Minimization Reveals Alternative Binding Modes†
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Crystallographic studies of ligand-protein complexes reveal most preferable ligand binding modes, but do not show less populated modes that may contribute to measurable biochemical and biophysical characteristics of the complexes. In some cases, a ligand may bind a protein in essentially different modes. An example is 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1), a steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes reduction of estrone to estradiol in gonadal and peripheral tissues. The enzyme exhibits a high specificity for estrogens which bind with their C17 atom in the proximity of the NADP(H) cofactor. 17Beta-HSD1 can also bind androgens, but in a reverse binding mode, in which the steroid C3 atom is the closest carbon atom to the cofactor. Here we map the interaction energy of estradiol and dihydrotestosterone binding to 17beta-HSD1. Positions and orientations of the steroids in the ligand-binding tunnel were sampled systematically, and at each combination of these generalized coordinates, the energy was Monte Carlo minimized. The computed maps show energy minima corresponding to the X-ray structures and predict alternative binding modes, in particular, an upside-down orientation in which steroidal face alpha is exposed to protein residues that normally interact with face beta. The methodology can be used for mapping ligand-receptor interactions in various systems, for example, in ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptors that bind elongated ligands in confined space between transmembrane helices.
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