Depletion of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 reduces host cell reactivation of a UV-damaged adenovirus-encoded reporter gene in human dermal fibroblasts
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In response to ultraviolet radiation (UV), mammalian cells rapidly activate a nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP), and we recently showed that one of the causes for PARP-activation is UV-induced direct DNA photolesions which are repaired by nucleotide excision repair process (NER). To determine whether PARP can play a role in NER, we stably depleted PARP in NER-proficient human skin fibroblasts GM637 by DNA vector-based RNAi. In these cells, we examined host cell reactivation (HCR) of UVB or UVC-irradiated recombinant adenovirus AdCA35lacZ, encoding a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) reporter gene. The depletion of PARP decreased the HCR of UVB- or UVC-damaged reporter gene to a similar extent, indicating the role of PARP in NER. Moreover, PARP-depletion reduced the HCR capacity of the NER-competent GM637 cells to a level closer to that in the XP-C and CS-B cell lines, which are deficient in the lesion recognition steps of the global genome repair (GGR) and transcription-coupled repair (TCR) sub-pathways of NER, respectively. In order to identify the potential role of PARP in these two sub-pathways of NER from that of its known role in base excision repair (BER) of UVB-induced oxidant damage, we depleted PARP from XP-C and CS-B cells and examined HCR of the reporter gene damaged by UVB, UVC or photoactivated methylene blue, the latter causing predominantly 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine damage that is repaired by BER. Interestingly, a decreased HCR due to PARP-depletion was observed in both the NER-deficient cell lines in response to virus damaged by these three agents, albeit with different kinetics from 12 to 44h after infection. The role of PARP in NER was highlighted by a decreased clonogenic survival of UV-irradiated NER-competent GM637 cells depleted of PARP. Our results, while confirming the role of PARP in base excision repair, suggest a novel role of PARP in both the GGR and TCR sub-pathways of NER.
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