Effect of extended-duration thromboprophylaxis on venous thromboembolism and major bleeding among acutely ill hospitalized medical patients: a bivariate analysis
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Essentials Anticoagulants prevent venous thromboembolism but may be associated with greater bleeding risks. Bivariate analysis assumes a non-linear relationship between efficacy and safety outcomes. Extended full-dose betrixaban is favorable over standard enoxaparin in bivariate endpoint. Clinicians must weigh efficacy and safety outcomes in decision-making on thromboprophylaxis. SUMMARY: Background Among acutely ill hospitalized medical patients, extended-duration thromboprophylaxis reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but some pharmacologic strategies have been associated with greater risks of major bleeding, thereby offsetting the net clinical benefit (NCB). Methods To assess the risk-benefit profile of anticoagulation regimens, a previously described bivariate method that does not assume a linear risk-benefit tradeoff and can accommodate different margins for efficacy and safety was performed to simultaneously assess efficacy (symptomatic VTE) and safety (major bleeding) on the basis of data from four randomized controlled trials of extended-duration (30-46 days) versus standard-duration (6-14 days) thromboprophylaxis among 28 227 patients (EXCLAIM, ADOPT, MAGELLAN and APEX trials). Results Extended thromboprophylaxis with full-dose betrixaban (80 mg once daily) was superior in efficacy and non-inferior in safety to standard-duration enoxaparin, and showed a significantly favorable NCB, with a risk difference of - 0.51% (- 0.89% to - 0.10%) in the bivariate outcome. Extended enoxaparin was superior in efficacy and inferior in safety (bivariate outcome: 0.03% [- 0.37% to 0.43%]), whereas apixaban and rivaroxaban were non-inferior in efficacy and inferior in safety (- 0.20% [- 0.49% to 0.17%] and 0.23% [- 0.16% to 0.69%], respectively). Reduced-dose betrixaban did not show a significant difference in either efficacy or safety (0.41% [- 0.85% to 1.94%]). Conclusions In a bivariate analysis that assumes non-linear risk-benefit tradeoffs, extended prophylaxis with full-dose betrixaban was superior to standard-duration enoxaparin, whereas other regimens failed to simultaneously achieve both superiority and non-inferiority with respect to symptomatic VTE and major bleeding in the management of acutely ill hospitalized medical patients.
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