Antiviral activity and safety of aplaviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected, therapy-naïve patients: results of the EPIC study (CCR100136)
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BACKGROUND: This phase IIb study explored the antiviral activity and safety of the investigational CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist aplaviroc (APL) in antiretroviral-naïve patients harbouring R5- or R5X4-tropic virus. METHODS: A total of 191 patients were randomized 2:2:2:1 to one of three APL dosing regimens or to lamivudine (3TC)/zidovudine (ZDV) twice daily (bid), each in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) 400 mg/100 mg bid. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: This study was terminated prematurely because of APL-associated idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. A total of 141 patients initiated treatment early enough to have been able to complete 12 weeks on treatment [modified intent-to-treat (M-ITT) population]; of these, 133 completed the 12-week treatment phase. The proportion of subjects in the M-ITT population with HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL at week 12 was 50, 48, 54 and 75% in the APL 200 mg bid, APL 400 mg bid, APL 800 mg once a day (qd) and 3TC/ZDV arms, respectively. Similar responses were seen in the few subjects harbouring R5X4-tropic virus (n=17). Common clinical adverse events (AEs) were diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue and headache. APL demonstrated nonlinear pharmacokinetics with high interpatient variability. CONCLUSIONS: While target plasma concentrations of APL were achieved, the antiviral activity of APL+LPV/r did not appear to be comparable to that of 3TC/ZDV+LPV/r.
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