Reduced Plasminogen Binding and Delayed Activation Render γ′-Fibrin More Resistant to Lysis than γA-Fibrin
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Fibrin (Fn) clots formed from γ'-fibrinogen (γ'-Fg), a variant with an elongated γ-chain, are resistant to lysis when compared with clots formed from the predominant γA-Fg, a finding previously attributed to differences in clot structure due to delayed thrombin-mediated fibrinopeptide (FP) B release or impaired cross-linking by factor XIIIa. We investigated whether slower lysis of γ'-Fn reflects delayed plasminogen (Pg) binding and/or activation by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), reduced plasmin-mediated proteolysis of γ'-Fn, and/or altered cross-linking. Clots formed from γ'-Fg lysed more slowly than those formed from γA-Fg when lysis was initiated with tPA/Pg when FPA and FPB were both released, but not when lysis was initiated with plasmin, or when only FPA was released. Pg bound to γ'-Fn with an association rate constant 22% lower than that to γA-Fn, and the lag time for initiation of Pg activation by tPA was longer with γ'-Fn than with γA-Fn. Once initiated, however, Pg activation kinetics were similar. Factor XIIIa had similar effects on clots formed from both Fg isoforms. Therefore, slower lysis of γ'-Fn clots reflects delayed FPB release, which results in delayed binding and activation of Pg. When clots were formed from Fg mixtures containing more than 20% γ'-Fg, the upper limit of the normal level, the delay in lysis was magnified. These data suggest that circulating levels of γ'-Fg modulate the susceptibility of clots to lysis by slowing Pg activation by tPA and provide another example of the intimate connections between coagulation and fibrinolysis.
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