γT‐S195A thrombin reduces the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran in vitro and in vivo
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BACKGROUND: Dabigatran etexilate (DE) is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor used to prevent strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation. No licensed DE antidote is currently available. We hypothesized that active site-mutated S195A thrombin (S195A-IIa) and/or its trypsinized derivative (γT -S195A-IIa) would sequester dabigatran, the active form of DE, and reduce its anticoagulant effects. OBJECTIVE: To assess active site-mutated S195A or γT -S195A-IIa as dabigatran reversal agents in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Diluted thrombin time (dTT) assays were performed using human or murine plasma containing dabigatran, combined with S195A-IIa, γT -S195A-IIa or FPR-chloromethyl ketone-treated thrombin (FPR-IIa). Bleeding times were determined in anesthetized DE-treated mice also receiving γT -S195A-IIa or vehicle 15 min prior to tail transection. The time to occlusion of carotid arteries of DE-treated mice also receiving S195A-IIa, γT -S195A-IIa, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) or vehicle, 15 min prior to topical FeCl3 , was determined using Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: γT-S195A-IIa reduced dTT values of dabigatran-containing human and murine plasma more effectively than S195-IIa; FPR-IIa had no effect. A dose of 13 mg kg(-1) DE abrogated occlusive thrombus formation in the carotid arteries of FeCl3 -treated mice; γT -S195A-IIa (6 mg kg(-1) ) or PCC (14.3 IU kg(-1) ), but not saline vehicle or S195A-IIa (6 mg kg(-1) ), was equally effective in restoring thrombus formation. Bleeding times of mice treated with 60 mg kg(-1) DE and γT -S195A-IIa (6 mg kg(-1) ) or saline vehicle did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that γT -S195A-IIa decreases the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran in vitro and is partially effective at restoring hemostasis-related thrombus formation in DE-treated mice in vivo.