Immunization With a Bivalent Adenovirus-vectored Tuberculosis Vaccine Provides Markedly Improved Protection Over Its Monovalent Counterpart Against Pulmonary Tuberculosis
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Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines hold great promise for tuberculosis (TB) vaccination strategies. However, there is a lack of side-by-side comparative investigations to dissect the functional differences and support the advantage of multivalent virus-vectored vaccine over its monovalent counterpart. We previously successfully developed a monovalent adenovirus (Ad)-vectored vaccine expressing Ag85a (AdAg85a) and demonstrated its superior protective efficacy in models of pulmonary TB. In this study, we have developed a bivalent Ad TB vaccine expressing Ag85a and TB10.4 antigens as a fusion protein (AdAg85a:TB10.4) and compared its T-cell-activating and immune protective efficacy with that by monovalent AdAg85a. A single intranasal (i.n.) administration of AdAg85a:TB10.4 induced robust T-cell responses toward the respective antigens within the airway lumen and spleen, although the level of Ag85a-specific T-cell responses in the airway lumen triggered by bivalent AdAg85a:TB10.4 was lower than that by its monovalent counterpart at earlier time points. Thus, a single i.n. delivery of AdAg85a:TB10.4 conferred a markedly improved and sustained level of protection in the lung against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) challenge over that by AdAg85a or by conventional BCG immunization with similarly induced levels of protection in the spleen. Our results indicate a unique advantage of multivalent viral-vectored TB vaccines for immunization against pulmonary TB.
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