Identification of core allosteric sites through temperature- and nucleus-invariant chemical shift covariance Academic Article uri icon

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abstract

  • Allosteric regulation is essential to control biological function. In addition, allosteric sites offer a promising venue for selective drug targeting. However, accurate mapping of allosteric sites remains challenging since allostery relies on often subtle, yet functionally relevant, structural and dynamical changes. A viable approach proposed to overcome such challenge is chemical shift covariance analysis (CHESCA). Although CHESCA offers an exhaustive map of allosteric networks, it is critical to define the core allosteric sites to be prioritized in subsequent functional studies or in the design of allosteric drugs. Here, we propose two new CHESCA-based methodologies, called temperature CHESCA (T-CHESCA) and CLASS-CHESCA, aimed at narrowing down allosteric maps to the core allosteric residues. Both T- and CLASS-CHESCAs rely on the invariance of core inter-residue correlations to changes in the chemical shifts of the active and inactive conformations interconverting in fast exchange. In T-CHESCA the chemical shifts of such states are modulated through temperature changes, while in CLASS-CHESCA through variations in the spin-active nuclei involved in pairwise correlations. T- and CLASS-CHESCAs, as well as complete-linkage CHESCA, were applied to the cAMP-binding domain of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), which serves as a prototypical allosteric switch. Residues consistently identified by the three CHESCA methods were found in previously identified EPAC allosteric core sites. Hence, T-, CLASS-, and CL-CHESCA provide a toolset to establish allosteric site hierarchy and triage allosteric sites to be further analyzed by mutations and functional assays. Furthermore, the core allosteric networks selectively revealed through T- and CLASS-CHESCA are expected to facilitate the mechanistic understanding of disease-related mutations and the design of selective allosteric modulators.

authors

  • Mohamed, Hebatallah
  • Baryar, Ubaidullah
  • Bashiri, Amir
  • Selvaratnam, Rajeevan
  • VanSchouwen, Bryan
  • Melacini, Giuseppe

publication date

  • June 2022