Imaging of Fibroblast Activation Protein in Cancer Xenografts Using Novel (4-Quinolinoyl)-glycyl-2-cyanopyrrolidine-Based Small Molecules
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Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) has become a favored target for imaging and therapy of malignancy. We have synthesized and characterized two new (4-quinolinoyl)-glycyl-2-cyanopyrrolidine-based small molecules for imaging of FAP, QCP01 and [111In]QCP02, using optical and single-photon computed tomography/CT, respectively. Binding of imaging agents to FAP was assessed in six human cancer cell lines of different cancer types: glioblastoma (U87), melanoma (SKMEL24), prostate (PC3), NSCLC (NCIH2228), colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (NCIH226). Mouse xenograft models were developed with FAP-positive U87 and FAP-negative PC3 cells to test pharmacokinetics and binding specificity in vivo. QCP01 and [111In]QCP02 demonstrated nanomolar inhibition of FAP at Ki values of 1.26 and 16.20 nM, respectively. Both were selective for FAP over DPP-IV, a related serine protease. Both enabled imaging of FAP-expressing tumors specifically in vivo. [111In]QCP02 showed high uptake at 18.2 percent injected dose per gram in the U87 tumor at 30 min post-administration.
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