Genetic Determinants of “Cognitive Impairment, No Dementia”
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Dementia is a heritable condition with devastating effects on both patients and their caregivers. Studies have identified genetic variants associated with increased susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD)-related dementia; however, no studies have assessed whether genetic variation is associated with the early stages of cognitive decline. Given that cerebrovascular disease is an established mechanism in which chronic ischemia increases susceptibility to dementia, we assessed whether genetic variation associated with either cardio-metabolic or AD-related traits is associated with an early stage of cognitive decline called "cognitive impairment, no dementia" (CIND). We studied 484 CIND patients and 459 cognitively healthy controls selected from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. We tested for association between ~200,000 genetic variants selected from genes associated with cardio-metabolic traits and CIND status using the Cardio-MetaboChip. We also assessed whether AD-related variants and APOE alleles were associated with CIND status, either individually or as part of a composite genetic risk score. We identified a potential association between the ZNF608/GRAMD3 locus, specifically the rs1439568 polymorphism and CIND status (major allele odds ratio [OR] = 1.51; p = 8.4 × 10(-6)). AD-related variants were not associated with CIND status, however APOE E4 allele frequency was significantly higher in CIND patients versus healthy controls (OR = 1.35; p = 0.044). We identified a potential association between the ZNF608/GRAMD3 locus and CIND status, although AD-related variants were not associated with CIND. Additional replication of this association signal is invited.
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