Neutrophilic Differentiation Induced by Human Upper Airway Fibroblast-derived Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (GM-CSF)
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We have established primary lines of fibroblasts from nasal polyp (NP) tissues as well as from normal nasal (NN) mucosa and have examined the ability of these cells to release hormone-like peptide messenger molecules (cytokines). Our results show that human upper airway fibroblasts release granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF), and macrophage-CSF (M-CSF) in vitro. We also show that fibroblasts derived from NP tissue express the gene for GM-CSF at a higher level, and release the GM-CSF product in greater amounts, than NN fibroblasts. In addition, we have examined the ability of these fibroblasts and their conditioned medium (CM) to induce differentiation of human hemopoietic progenitor cells. After 7 d, cultures of these cells in RPMI-10% fetal bovine serum contained 5 +/- 2.5% (mean +/- SD) neutrophils. In contrast, culture of progenitor cells with fibroblasts resulted in significantly greater neutrophilic differentiation (18 +/- 4%). Culture in fibroblast-CM induced a similar degree of differentiation, and fibroblast-CM from NP fibroblasts elicited greater differentiation compared to CM from NN fibroblasts (17.5 +/- 3 versus 12 +/- 3%). The neutrophilic differentiation induced by fibroblast-CM can be fully inhibited by preincubating this CM with a monoclonal neutralizing antibody to human GM-CSF. Thus, our results demonstrate: (1) the ability of human upper airway fibroblasts to release GM-, G-, and M-CSF in vitro; (2) that fibroblasts derived from NP tissues express the gene and release the product GM-CSF at greater levels compared to NN fibroblasts; and (3) that fibroblast-derived GM-CSF causes neutrophilic differentiation of human hemopoietic progenitors.
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