IL-33, but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin or IL-25, is central to mite and peanut allergic sensitization
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BACKGROUND: Allergen exposure at lung and gut mucosae can lead to aberrant T(H)2 immunity and allergic disease. The epithelium-associated cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, and IL-33 are suggested to be important for the initiation of these responses. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the contributions of TSLP, IL-25, and IL-33 in the development of allergic disease to the common allergens house dust mite (HDM) or peanut. METHODS: Neutralizing antibodies or mice deficient in TSLP, IL-25, or IL-33 signaling were exposed to HDM intranasally or peanut intragastrically, and immune inflammatory and physiologic responses were evaluated. In vitro assays were performed to examine specific dendritic cell (DC) functions. RESULTS: We showed that experimental HDM-induced allergic asthma and food allergy and anaphylaxis to peanut were associated with TSLP production but developed independently of TSLP, likely because these allergens functionally mimicked TSLP inhibition of IL-12 production and induction of OX40 ligand (OX40L) on DCs. Blockade of OX40L significantly lessened allergic responses to HDM or peanut. Although IL-25 and IL-33 induced OX40L on DCs in vitro, only IL-33 signaling was necessary for intact allergic immunity, likely because of its superior ability to induce DC OX40L and expand innate lymphoid cells in vivo. CONCLUSION: These data identify a nonredundant, IL-33-driven mechanism initiating T(H)2 responses to the clinically relevant allergens HDM and peanut. Our findings, along with those in infectious and transgenic/surrogate allergen systems, favor a paradigm whereby multiple molecular pathways can initiate T(H)2 immunity, which has implications for the conceptualization and manipulation of these responses in health and disease.
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