Infant gut microbiota and food sensitization: associations in the first year of life
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BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is established during infancy and plays a fundamental role in shaping host immunity. Colonization patterns may influence the development of atopic disease, but existing evidence is limited and conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To explore associations of infant gut microbiota and food sensitization. METHODS: Food sensitization at 1 year was determined by skin prick testing in 166 infants from the population-based Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study. Faecal samples were collected at 3 and 12 months, and microbiota was characterized by Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: Twelve infants (7.2%) were sensitized to ≥ 1 common food allergen at 1 year. Enterobacteriaceae were overrepresented and Bacteroidaceae were underrepresented in the gut microbiota of food-sensitized infants at 3 months and 1 year, whereas lower microbiota richness was evident only at 3 months. Each quartile increase in richness at 3 months was associated with a 55% reduction in risk for food sensitization by 1 year (adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.87). Independently, each quartile increase in Enterobacteriaceae/Bacteroidaceae ratio was associated with a twofold increase in risk (2.02, 1.07-3.80). These associations were upheld in a sensitivity analysis among infants who were vaginally delivered, exclusively breastfed and unexposed to antibiotics. At 1 year, the Enterobacteriaceae/Bacteroidaceae ratio remained elevated among sensitized infants, who also tended to have decreased abundance of Ruminococcaceae. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Low gut microbiota richness and an elevated Enterobacteriaceae/Bacteroidaceae ratio in early infancy are associated with subsequent food sensitization, suggesting that early gut colonization may contribute to the development of atopic disease, including food allergy.
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