Sleep to lower elevated blood pressure: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
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BACKGROUND: Sleep is an essential component of good physical and mental health. Previous studies have reported that poor quality sleep is associated with an increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is the most common and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and even modest reductions in blood pressure can result in significant reductions in the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. In this trial, we will determine the efficacy of an online sleep intervention in improving blood pressure, in participants with hypertension and poor sleep quality. METHODS: TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized-controlled, two-group, parallel, blinded, single-center, Phase II trial of 134 participants. Population and recruitment: Primary prevention population of participants with hypertension (systolic blood pressure, 130 to 160 mm Hg; diastolic blood pressure, <110 mm Hg) and poor sleep quality in a community setting. INTERVENTION: Multicomponent online sleep intervention consisting of sleep information, sleep hygiene education, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Comparator: Standardized cardiovascular risk factor and lifestyle-education session (usual care). PRIMARY OUTCOME: Change in mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure between baseline and 8-week follow-up. Hypertension has been selected as the primary outcome measure because of its robust association with both poor sleep quality and cardiovascular disease. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Intention-to-treat analysis by using a linear mixed model. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01809821, registered March 8, 2013.
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