A Control Switch for Prothrombinase
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Membrane-bound factor Xa alone catalyzes prothrombin activation following initial cleavage at Arg(271) and prethrombin 2 formation (pre2 pathway). Factor Va directs prothrombin activation by factor Xa through the meizothrombin pathway, characterized by initial cleavage at Arg(320) (meizo pathway). We have shown previously that a pentapeptide encompassing amino acid sequence 695-699 from the COOH terminus of the heavy chain of factor Va (Asp-Tyr-Asp-Tyr-Gln, DYDYQ) inhibits prothrombin activation by prothrombinase in a competitive manner with respect to substrate. To understand the mechanism of inhibition of thrombin formation by DYDYQ, we have studied prothrombin activation by gel electrophoresis. Titration of plasma-derived prothrombin activation by prothrombinase, with increasing concentrations of peptide, resulted in complete inhibition of the meizo pathway. However, thrombin formation still occurred through the pre2 pathway. These data demonstrate that the peptide preferentially inhibits initial cleavage of prothrombin by prothrombinase at Arg(320). These findings were corroborated by studying the activation of recombinant mutant prothrombin molecules rMZ-II (R155A/R284A/R271A) and rP2-II (R155A/R284A/R320A) which can be only cleaved at Arg(320) and Arg(271), respectively. Cleavage of rMZ-II by prothrombinase was completely inhibited by low concentrations of DYDYQ, whereas high concentrations of pentapeptide were required to inhibit cleavage of rP2-II. The pentapeptide also interfered with prothrombin cleavage by membrane-bound factor Xa alone in the absence of factor Va increasing the rate for cleavage at Arg(271) of plasma-derived prothrombin or rP2-II. Our data demonstrate that pentapeptide DYDYQ has opposing effects on membrane-bound factor Xa for prothrombin cleavage, depending on the incorporation of factor Va in prothrombinase.
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