Effect of weight loss on the postprandial response to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals in obese women
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight loss on the plasma lipid and remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol (RLPc) response to a high-fat or a high-carbohydrate meal in a population of obese women. DESIGN: Nutritional intervention study. SUBJECTS: Sixteen obese women (mean body mass index (BMI): 37.6+/-5 kg/m(2)). METHODS: Subjects were asked to follow an energy-restricted diet (800 kcal/day) for 7 weeks, followed by a 1-week maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, each participant was given (in random order) two iso-energetic meals containing either 80% fat and 20% protein (the high-fat meal) or 80% carbohydrate and 20% protein (the high-carbohydrate meal). Blood samples were collected over the following 10-h period. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to assess the effect of the meal and postprandial time on biological variables and postprandial responses (notably RLPc levels). RESULTS: Weight loss was associated with a significant decrease in fasting triglyceride (P=0.0102), cholesterol (P<0.0001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.0003), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P=0.0009) and RLPc (P=0.0015) levels. The triglyceride response to the high-fat meal was less intense after weight reduction than before (interaction P<0.002). This effect persisted after adjustment on baseline triglyceride levels. The triglyceride response to the high-carbohydrate meal was biphasic (i.e. with two peaks, 1 and 6 h after carbohydrate intake). After adjustment on baseline values, weight reduction was associated with a trend towards a reduction in the magnitude of the second triglyceride peak (interaction P<0.054). In contrast, there was no difference in postprandial RLPc responses before and after weight loss, again after adjustment on baseline levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that weight loss preferentially affects postprandial triglyceride metabolism.
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