Strategies to Enhance Viral Penetration of Solid Tumors
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The efficient delivery of viral vectors to tumors is an active area of investigation. A number of barriers exist that must be overcome to achieve good penetration of vectors into tumors and distribution of their effects throughout the tumor mass. Replicating oncolytic viruses have the advantage of being able to amplify the initial dose, but progeny virus are prevented from spreading because of a dense mass of tightly packed cells with a dense extracellular matrix, admixed normal stromal cells, and high interstitial pressure. Although intratumoral injection may ensure initial delivery the distribution achieved by intravenous administration may be superior and come with beneficial bystander damage to the tumor vasculature. Strategies to enhance intravenous delivery and subsequent spread of these vectors within tumors are being developed by a number of groups. Achieving the goal of efficient penetration and spread of viruses within solid tumors is a necessary prerequisite to significant improvements in virus-vectored therapy of solid tumors.
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