Flux Through the Hexosamine Pathway Is a Determinant of Nuclear Factor B- Dependent Promoter Activation
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The hexosamine pathway may mediate some of the toxic effects of glucose. We hypothesized that flux through this pathway might regulate the activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent genes in mesangial cells (MCs). In MCs, RT-PCR revealed that high glucose (30 mmol/l) and glucosamine (1 mmol/l) increased mRNA levels for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and increased the activity of an NF-kappaB enhancer by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively. Overexpression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the rate-limiting enzyme for flux through the hexosamine pathway, led to a 2.2-fold increase in NF-kappaB enhancer activity; the combination of GFAT overexpression and high glucose increased activity 2.8-fold, and these increases were prevented by 40 micromol/l O-diazoacetyl-L-serine (azaserine) or 6-diazo-5-oxonorleucine. High glucose, glucosamine, and GFAT overexpression increased binding of MC nuclear proteins to NF-kappaB consensus sequences. Immunoblotting revealed that the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB was O-glycosylated in MC cultured in physiologic glucose and that significant enhancement occurred with high glucose and glucosamine. Both glucose and glucosamine dose-dependently increased human VCAM-1 promoter activity. In addition, GFAT overexpression activated the VCAM-1 promoter (2.25-fold), with further augmentation by high glucose and abrogation by inhibitors of GFAT, NF-kappaB, and O-glycosylation. Inactivation of the two NF-kappaB sites in the VCAM-1 promoter abolished its response to high glucose, glucosamine, and GFAT overexpression. These results suggest that increased flux through the hexosamine pathway leads to NF-kappaB-dependent promoter activation in MCs.
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