Micronuclei formation in rainbow trout cells exposed to multiple stressors: Morpholine, heat shock, and ionizing radiation
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Discharges from industrial cooling water systems can include low levels of morpholine (a chemical pH regulator and corrosion inhibitor), as well as transiently higher temperature effluent water which present a potential source of environmental impact to aquatic biota. The effects of environmental levels of morpholine or heat shock (HS) treatment alone and in combination with a challenge high-dose of 137Cs ionizing radiation were studied using the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay in a rainbow trout cell line (RTG-2). Morpholine treatment of 10 or 100mgL-1 alone produced no significant effects, and no interaction was observed in combination with 7.75Gy radiation. A 9°C magnitude HS treatment alone significantly increased micronuclei formation. A synergistic response was observed when 9°C HS was combined with 7.75Gy radiation, with 15% more cells containing 3 or more micronuclei than the sum of each individual stressor. A synergistic increase in the average number of micronuclei was observed when morpholine and a 9°C HS were co-treated. These results indicate that morpholine at environmentally-relevant levels does not impact micronuclei formation or cell cycle progression however 9°C HS may be of potential concern both alone and in combination with other stressor treatments.
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