- The authors examined the effects of self-regulating task information, identical in content, either before (proactive) or after (retroactive) a motor action. Participants were required to learn unique typographical script used to enter data into a personal data assistant. Consistent with previous findings, presenting task information proactively during acquisition facilitated performance, but presenting task information retroactively resulted in superior learning as measured in retention tests. However, those who self-regulated proactive task information demonstrated learning that was equivalent to those who received retroactive task information. These results suggest that when task information is equated, the learning benefits associated with self-regulation are independent of the timing of when the augmented information is made available during practise.