Dietary alteration of dihomogamma-linolenic acid/arachidonic acid ratio in a rat 5/6-renal-ablation model. The Nutrition & Kidney Disease Research Group.
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Interest in the modulation of renal diseases by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) led this group to examine the effects of borage oil (BO) and corn oil (CO) in the rat 5/6-renal-ablation model. BO is a rich source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6), which is elongated to dihomogamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6). CO is a rich source of linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), a GLA and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) precursor. The purpose of this study was to assess whether an increased DGLA:AA ratio as provided by BO would confer benefits beyond those provided by LA present in corn oil. Forty rats were used for the experiment. Seven rats were used for presurgery measurements. The remaining animals were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. Surviving rats (N = 30) were fed regular laboratory diet (RLD) for 7 days, at which time seven rats were used to obtain 1-wk postnephrectomy data. The remainder were then allocated to receive either RLD (N = 8), 15% BO (N = 8), or 15% CO (N = 7) diets for 20 wk. Body weight, renal phospholipid levels, renal function (proteinuria and GFR), glomerular histology, glomerular macrophage infiltration, urinary prostaglandin levels (thromboxane B2 (TxB2), 6-keto-PGF1 alpha), plasma lipid levels, and blood pressure were measured. Diets were well tolerated by all groups with a similar age-related gain in weight throughout the study. Efficacy of the PUFA diets was confirmed by alteration in renal tissue phospholipids; LA decreased in the RLD and BO groups, but not in the CO group. AA was higher in the BO and CO rats, but only the BO group showed a rise in GLA and DGLA incorporation. Proteinuria increased progressively in the RLD group but remained at 1-wk postsurgery levels in the BO and CO groups. Decline in GFR and mesangial expansion were significantly lessened by BO supplementation only. Both PUFA diets limited glomerulosclerosis and macrophage infiltration, but direct comparisons between BO and CO groups revealed significantly less glomerulosclerosis and macrophage infiltration in the BO group. Both BO and CO attenuated the rise in the TxB2 excretion rate and restored the 6-keto-PGF1 alpha:TxB2 ratio to the 1-wk postsurgery level. Plasma lipid levels rose in all groups, but the rise in cholesterol level was less in the BO and CO rats, CO being the most efficacious in this regard. BP increased progressively in RLD rats, but not in the BO and CO groups, BO providing a markedly greater hypotensive effect. In summary, both CO and BO supplemented PUFA diets limited glomerular injury in the renal-ablated rats. However, BO supplementation was more effective than CO supplementation at preserving GFR, limiting mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis, and reducing glomerular macrophage infiltration.
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