Affecting 5% to 6% of school-age children, developmental coordination disorder is characterized by a marked impairment of motor coordination that significantly interferes with activities of daily living and academic achievement. Little is known about the etiology of developmental coordination disorder, but the disorder often coexists with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), speech/language impairment, and/or reading disability. This comprehensive review examines the literature supporting or refuting hypothesized neural correlates of developmental coordination disorder and suggests directions for future research. Potential sources of neuropathology include the cerebellum, parietal lobe, corpus callosum, and basal ganglia. Comorbidities and deficits associated with developmental coordination disorder are highly suggestive of cerebellar dysfunction; yet, given the heterogeneity of this disorder, it is likely that the cerebellum is not the only neural correlate. Neuroimaging studies and behavioral investigations of learning-related change in motor behavior are the next critical step in enhancing our understanding of developmental coordination disorder.