A Phase I Study of OGX-011, a 2'-Methoxyethyl Phosphorothioate Antisense to Clusterin, in Combination with Docetaxel in Patients with Advanced Cancer
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PURPOSE: Clusterin is a cytoprotective chaperone protein that promotes cell survival and confers broad-spectrum treatment resistance. OGX-011 is a 2'-methoxyethyl-modified phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide that is complementary to clusterin mRNA, has a prolonged tissue half life, enhances drug efficacy in xenograft models, and reduces clusterin expression in humans with a biologically effective dose of 640 mg. The objective of this study was to determine a recommended phase II dose of OGX-011 in combination with docetaxel. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with cancers known from the literature to express clusterin were eligible. OGX-011 was given by 2-h i.v. infusion starting at 40 mg weekly after loading doses on days 1, 3, and 5. Docetaxel was given i.v. 30 mg/m(2) weekly for 5 of 6 weeks (schedule A) or 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks (schedule B). All patients had serial samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum assessed for clusterin expression. RESULTS: Forty patients were enrolled to eight cohorts. OGX-011 could be given at the full biologically effective single-agent dose of 640 mg with both docetaxel schedules. Toxic effects were primarily myelosuppression, fatigue, hair loss, gastrointestinal effects (expected docetaxel effects), as well as dose-related chills and fever (expected OGX-011 effects). OGX-011 AUC and C(max) increased proportionally with no apparent effect on docetaxel pharmacokinetics. At the end of cycle 1, serum clusterin showed mean decreases of 34% and 38% (range, 15-99%) at the 640-mg dose levels. CONCLUSIONS: OGX-011 can be given at a biologically effective dose with standard doses of docetaxel. Phase II trials of combined OGX-011 and chemotherapy are ongoing in patients with prostate, breast, and lung cancers.
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