Proteomic Profiling of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Proteins in an Animal Model of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Dyslipidemia
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Hepatic insulin resistance and lipoprotein overproduction are common features of the metabolic syndrome and insulin-resistant states. A fructose-fed, insulin-resistant hamster model was recently developed to investigate mechanisms linking the development of hepatic insulin resistance and overproduction of atherogenic lipoproteins. Here we report a systematic analysis of protein expression profiles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fractions isolated from livers of fructose-fed hamsters with the intention of identifying new candidate proteins involved in hepatic complications of insulin resistance and lipoprotein dysregulation. We have profiled hepatic ER-associated proteins from chow-fed (control) and fructose-fed (insulin-resistant) hamsters using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 26 large scale two-dimensional gels of hepatic ER were used to identify 34 differentially expressed hepatic ER protein spots observed to be at least 2-fold differentially expressed with fructose feeding and the onset of insulin resistance. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-quadrupole time of flight (MALDI-Q-TOF), MALDI-TOF-postsource decay, and database mining using ProteinProspector MS-fit and MS-tag or the PROWL ProFound search engine using a focused rodent or mammalian search. Hepatic ER proteins ER60, ERp46, ERp29, glutamate dehydrogenase, and TAP1 were shown to be more than 2-fold down-regulated, whereas alpha-glucosidase, P-glycoprotein, fibrinogen, protein disulfide isomerase, GRP94, and apolipoprotein E were all found to be up-regulated in the hepatic ER of the fructose-fed hamster. Seven isoforms of ER60 in the hepatic ER were all shown to be down-regulated at least 2-fold in hepatocytes from fructosefed/insulin-resistant hamsters. Implications of the differential expression of positively identified protein factors in the development of hepatic insulin resistance and lipoprotein abnormalities are discussed.
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