1,4-Dihydropyridine Scaffold in Medicinal Chemistry, The Story so Far And Perspectives (Part 1): Action in Ion Channels and GPCRs
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Since the pioneering studies of Fleckenstein and co-workers, L-Type Calcium Channel (LTCC) blockers have attracted large interest due to their effectiveness in treating several cardiovascular diseases. Medicinal chemists achieved high potency and tissue selectivity by decorating the 1-4-DHP nucleus, the most studied scaffold among LTCC blockers. Nowadays it is clear that the 1,4-DHP nucleus is a privileged scaffold since, when appropriately substituted, it can selectively modulate diverse receptors, channels and enzymes. Therefore, the 1,4-DHP scaffold could be used to treat various diseases by a single-ligand multi-target approach. In this review, we describe the structure-activity relationships of 1,4-DHPs at ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, and outline the potential for future therapeutic applications.
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