Hplc/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of the Heterocyclic Aromatic Amine Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Human Milk
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A new procedure has been developed for the extraction of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and other heterocyclic aromatic amines from human breast milk samples. Extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) with selective reaction monitoring detection. Tandem ESI-MS/MS detection provides much improved sensitivity and specificity, compared with those of a previous method that used selected ion monitoring. Milk samples were collected from 48 healthy volunteers, including five vegetarians. Donors completed a detailed dietary questionnaire. The concentrations of PhIP in the milk samples were low and below the limit of quantification (0.68 pg/mL) for all subjects except one, for whom a concentration of 1.0 pg PhIP/mL was measured. Our results indicate that the levels of PhIP in human milk are substantially lower than what was previously reported.
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