Thrombolysis by chemically modified coagulation factor Xa
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UNLABELLED: Essentials Factor Xa (FXa) acquires cleavage-mediated tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) cofactor activity. Recombinant (r) tPA is the predominant thrombolytic drug, but it may cause systemic side effects. Chemically modified, non-enzymatic FXa was produced (Xai-K), which rapidly lysed thrombi in mice. Unlike rtPA, Xai-K had no systemic fibrinolysis activation markers, indicating improved safety. SUMMARY: Background Enzymatic thrombolysis carries the risk of hemorrhage and re-occlusion must be evaded by co-administration with an anticoagulant. Toward further improving these shortcomings, we report a novel dual-functioning molecule, Xai-K, which is both a non-enzymatic thrombolytic agent and an anticoagulant. Xai-K is based on clotting factor Xa, whose sequential plasmin-mediated fragments, FXaβ and Xa33/13, accelerate the principal thrombolytic agent, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), but only when localized to anionic phospholipid. Methods The effect of Xai-K on fibrinolysis was measured in vitro by turbidity, thromboelastography and chromogenic assays, and measured in a murine model of occlusive carotid thrombosis by Doppler ultrasound. The anticoagulant properties of Xai-K were evaluated by normal plasma clotting assays, and in murine liver laceration and tail amputation hemostatic models. Results Xa33/13, which participates in fibrinolysis of purified fibrin, was rapidly inhibited in plasma. Cleavage was blocked at FXaβ by modifying residues at the active site. The resultant Xai-K (1 nm) enhanced plasma clot dissolution by ~7-fold in vitro and was dependent on tPA. Xai-K alone (2.0 μg g(-1) body weight) achieved therapeutic patency in mice. The minimum primary dose of the tPA variant, Tenecteplase (TNK; 17 μg g(-1) ), could be reduced by > 30-fold to restore blood flow with adjunctive Xai-K (0.5 μg g(-1) ). TNK-induced systemic markers of fibrinolysis were not detected with Xai-K (2.0 μg g(-1) ). Xai-K had anticoagulant activity that was somewhat attenuated compared with a previously reported analogue. Conclusion These results suggest that Xai-K may ameliorate the safety profile of therapeutic thrombolysis, either as a primary or tPA/TNK-adjunctive agent.