Murine Airway Luminal Antituberculosis Memory CD8 T Cells by Mucosal Immunization Are Maintained Via Antigen-Driven In Situ Proliferation, Independent of Peripheral T Cell Recruitment
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RATIONALE: The airway luminal memory CD8 T cells induced by respiratory mucosal immunization in a murine model have been found to be critical to antituberculosis immunity. However, the mechanisms of their maintenance on airway mucosal surface still remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Using a model of adenovirus-based intranasal immunization we investigated the immune property and the mechanisms of maintenance of airway luminal CD8 T cells. METHODS: Immune properties of airway luminal Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific CD8 T cells were examined. Proliferation of airway luminal CD8 T cells was determined by in vivo T cell-labeling techniques. The role of peripheral T cell recruitment in maintaining airway luminal CD8 T cells was investigated by blocking lymphocyte trafficking from lymphoid and peripheral tissues. The requirement of M. tuberculosis antigens for in situ T cell proliferation was evaluated using a T cell transfer approach. An airway M. tuberculosis challenge model was used to study the relationship between CD8 T cell-mediated protection and peripheral T cell recruitment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Intranasal immunization leads to elicitation of persisting M. tuberculosis antigen-specific CD8 T cells in the airway lumen, which display an activated effector memory phenotype different from those in peripheral tissues. Airway luminal T cells continuously proliferate in an antigen-dependent manner, and can be maintained even in the absence of peripheral T cell recruitment. The lungs equipped with such CD8 T cells are protected from airway M. tuberculosis challenge independent of both peripheral T cell supply and CD4 T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-inducible airway luminal antituberculosis memory CD8 T cells are self-renewable in an antigen-dependent manner, and can be maintained independent of peripheral T cell supply.
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