High-fat diet-induced lipidome perturbations in the cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb of mice
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Given their important role in neuronal function, there has been an increasing focus on altered lipid levels in brain disorders. The effect of a high-fat (HF) diet on the lipid profiles of the cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb of the mouse brain was investigated using nanoflow ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in the current study. For 8 weeks, two groups of 5-week-old mice were fed either an HF or normal diet (6 mice from each group analyzed as the F and N groups, respectively). The remaining mice in both groups then received a 4-week normal diet. Each group was then subdivided into two groups for another 4-week HF or normal diet. Quantitative analysis of 270 of the 359 lipids identified from brain tissue revealed that an HF diet significantly affected the brain lipidome in all brain regions that were analyzed. The HF diet significantly increased diacylglycerols, which play a role in insulin resistance in all regions that were analyzed. Although the HF diet increased most lipid species, the majority of phosphatidylserine species were decreased, while lysophosphatidylserine species, with the same acyl chain, were substantially increased. This result can be attributed to increased oxidative stress due to the HF diet. Further, weight-cycling (yo-yo effect) was found more critical for the perturbation of brain lipid profiles than weight gain without a preliminary experience of an HF diet. The present study reveals systematic alterations in brain lipid levels upon HF diet analyzed either by lipid class and molecular levels.
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