Extension of the Single Amino Acid Chelate Concept (SAAC) to Bifunctional Biotin Analogues for Complexation of the M(CO)3+1 Core (M = Tc and Re): Syntheses, Characterization, Biotinidase Stability, and Avidin Binding
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Biotin and avidin form one of the most stable complexes known (K(D) = 10(-15) M(-1)) making this pairing attractive for a variety of biomedical applications including targeted radiotherapy. In this application, one of the pair is attached to a targeting molecule, while the other is subsequently used to deliver a radionuclide for imaging and/or therapeutic applications. Recently, we reported a new single amino acid chelate (SAAC) capable of forming stable complexes with Tc(CO)3 or Re(CO)3 cores. We describe here the application of SAAC analogues for the development of a series of novel radiolabeled biotin derivatives capable of forming robust complexes with both Tc and Re. Compounds were prepared through varying modification of the free carboxylic acid group of biotin. Each 99mTc complex of SAAC-biotin was studied for their ability to bind avidin, susceptibility to biotinidase, and specificity for avidin in an in vivo avidin-containing tumor model. The radiochemical stability of the 99mTc(CO)3 complexes was also investigated by challenging each 99mTc-complex with large molar excesses of cysteine and histidine at elevated temperature. All compounds were radiochemically stable for greater than 24 h at elevated temperature in the presence of histidine and cysteine. Both [99mTc(CO)3(L6)]+1 [TcL6; L6 = biotinylamidopropyl-N,N-(dipicolyl)amine] and [99mTc(CO)3(L12a)]+1 (TcL12; L12 = N,N-(dipicolyl)biotinamido-Boc-lysine; TcL12a; L12a = N,N-(dipicolyl)biotinamide-lysine) readily bound to avidin whereas [99mTc(CO)3(L9)]+1 [TcL9; L9 = N,N-(dipicolyl)biotinamine] demonstrated minimal specific binding. TcL6 and TcL9 were resistant to biotinidase cleavage, while TcL12a, which contains a lysine linkage, was rapidly cleaved. The highest uptake in an in vivo avidin tumor model was exhibited by TcL6, followed by TcL9 and TcL12a, respectively. This is likely the result of both intact binding to avidin and resistance to circulating biotinidase. Ligand L6 is the first SAAC analogue of biotin to demonstrate potential as a radiolabeled targeting vector of biotin capable of forming robust radiochemical complexes with both 99mTc and rhenium radionuclides. Computational simulations were performed to assess biotin-derivative accommodation within the binding site of the avidin. These calculations predict that deformation of the surface domain of the binding pocket can occur to accommodate the transition metal-biotin derivatives with negligible changes to the inner-beta-barrel, the region most responsible for binding and retaining biotin and its derivatives. The biological activity and biodistribution of the technetium complexes TcL6, TcL9, and TcL12a were examined in an avidin tumor model. In the avidin bead tumor localization model, TcL6 demonstrated the most favorable localization with a 7:1 ratio of avidin bead implanted muscle versus normal muscle, while TcL9 exhibited a 2:1 ratio. However, TcL9 displayed no specificity for avidin.
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