Natural and human factors influencing urban particulate matter concentrations in central heating areas with long-term wearable monitoring devices
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In northern China, central heating, as an important source of urban particulate matter (UPM), causes more than half of the air pollution during the heating season and has significant spatial-temporal heterogeneity. Owing to the limitations of stationary air monitoring networks, few studies distinguish between heating/non-heating seasons and few have been conducted in urban areas. However, fixed monitoring cannot accurately capture the dynamic exposure of residents to UPM, and there is a lack of comprehensive evaluation of the factors affecting UPM. Therefore, this study used wearable Sniffer 4D equipment to monitor the concentrations of UPM (PM1, PM2.5, and PM10) in selected typical areas of Shenyang City from March 2019 to February 2020. A random forest model was combined with land use and point-of-interest data to analyze the contributions and marginal effects of multiple influences on UPM, in both heating and non-heating seasons. The results showed that in the eastern part of the study area, UPM showed completely opposite spatial distribution characteristics during the two seasons. The concentrations of UPM were higher during the heating season than during the non-heating season. The results indicated that temperature and humidity were important factors in diffusing UPM. The production and operation of boilers were important for the production of UPM. In two-dimensional landscape pattern indices, the percentage of forest and Shannon diversity index were the first and second most important factors, respectively. The three-dimensional pattern of buildings had important effects on the transport and diffusion of UPM (landscape height range >100, floor area ratio >1.3, and landscape volume density >5). Wearable devices could monitor the real situation of residents' exposure to UPM and quantify the factors influencing the spatial-temporal distribution of UPM in an ecological sense. These results provide a scientific basis for urban planning and for health risk reduction for residents.