Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D) that changes gut microbial composition. We determined whether the gut microbiota in humans after restrictive or malabsorptive bariatric surgery was sufficient to lower blood glucose.
Women with obesity and T2D had biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Faecal samples from the same patient before and after each surgery were used to colonise rodents, and determinants of blood glucose control were assessed.
Glucose tolerance was improved in germ-free mice orally colonised for 7 weeks with human microbiota after either BPD-DS or LSG, whereas food intake, fat mass, insulin resistance, secretion and clearance were unchanged. Mice colonised with microbiota post-BPD-DS had lower villus height/width and crypt depth in the distal jejunum and lower intestinal glucose absorption. Inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter (Sglt)1 abrogated microbiota-transmissible improvements in blood glucose control in mice. In specific pathogen-free (SPF) rats, intrajejunal colonisation for 4 weeks with microbiota post-BPD-DS was sufficient to improve blood glucose control, which was negated after intrajejunal Sglt-1 inhibition. Higher
Parabacteroidesand lower Blautiacoincided with improvements in blood glucose control after colonisation with human bacteria post-BPD-DS and LSG. Conclusion
Exposure of rodents to human gut microbiota after restrictive or malabsorptive bariatric surgery improves glycaemic control. The gut microbiota after bariatric surgery is a standalone factor that alters upper gut intestinal morphology and lowers Sglt1-mediated intestinal glucose absorption, which improves blood glucose control independently from changes in obesity, insulin or insulin resistance.