Patient, Caregiver, and Clinician Participation in Prioritization of Research Questions in Pediatric Hospital Medicine Academic Article uri icon

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  • Importance

    The research agenda in pediatric hospital medicine has seldom considered the perspectives of young people, parents and caregivers, and health care professionals. Their perspectives may be useful in identifying questions on topics for research.


    To prioritize unanswered research questions in pediatric hospital medicine from the perspectives of young people, parents/caregivers, and health care professionals.

    Design, setting, and participants

    Between August 4, 2020, and August 19, 2021, two online surveys and a virtual workshop were conducted, using modified Delphi technique and nominal group technique. Young people, parents/caregivers, and health care professionals with experiences in pediatric hospital medicine in Canada were included.


    The established James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership method was used. In phase 1, a survey collected unanswered questions regarding pediatric hospital medicine via 3 open-ended questions. Survey responses were used to develop summary questions that went through an evidence-checking process. Unanswered questions were brought to a phase 2 interim prioritization survey. The top 10 unanswered research questions in pediatric hospital medicine were established at the final priority setting workshop.

    Main outcomes and measures

    Survey responses, top 10 research questions.


    The phase 1 survey was completed by 188 participants (148 of 167 [89%] females; 17 of 167 [10%] males; mean [SD] age, 39.5 [12.4] years) and generated 495 unanswered research questions and comments, of which 58 were deemed out of scope. The remaining 437 responses were grouped into themes (eg, communication, shared decision-making, health service delivery, and health service management) and then refined to 75 unanswered research questions. Of these 75, only 4 questions had sufficient evidence. To make the number of questions in phase 2 manageable, 21 questions submitted by only 1 respondent were eliminated. Fifty unanswered research questions were included in the phase 2 survey, which was completed by 201 participants (165 of 186 [89%] females; 19 of 186 [10%] males; mean [SD] age, 40.0 [11.0] years). A short list of 16 questions-the top 10 questions from patient partners (youths, parents/caregivers) and clinicians-was presented at the final priority setting workshop and the top 10 questions were prioritized. The top 10 questions focused on the care of special inpatient populations (eg, children with medical complexity), communication, shared decision-making, support strategies in the hospital, mental health supports, shortening length of stay, and supporting Indigenous patients, parents/caregivers, and families.

    Conclusions and relevance

    This patient-oriented pediatric hospital medicine priority setting partnership identified the most important unanswered research questions focused on the care of children in the hospital. These questions provide a possible roadmap for research on areas deemed important to young people, parents/caregivers, and clinicians.


  • Gill, Peter J
  • Bayliss, Ann
  • Sozer, Aubrey
  • Buchanan, Francine
  • Breen-Reid, Karen
  • De Castris-Garcia, Kim
  • Green, Mairead
  • Quinlan, Michelle
  • Wong, Noel
  • Frappier, Shelley
  • Cowan, Katherine
  • Chan, Carol
  • Arafeh, Dana
  • Anwar, Mohammed Rashid
  • Macarthur, Colin
  • Parkin, Patricia C
  • Cohen, Eyal
  • Mahant, Sanjay
  • Drouin, Olivier
  • Pound, Catherine
  • Wahi, Gita
  • Vomiero, Gemma
  • Zhou, Kim
  • Sakran, Mahmoud
  • Sehgal, Anupam
  • Luuy, Thuy Mai
  • Forbes, Karen
  • McLaughlin, Tom
  • Baerg, Krista
  • t Jong, Geert
  • Taheri, Sepi
  • Li, Patricia
  • Constantin, Evelyn
  • Holland, Joanna
  • Newhook, Leigh-Ann
  • Murray, Sean

publication date

  • April 2022