Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) include a large number of diseases and causes with variable outcomes often associated with progressive fibrosis. Although each of the individual fibrosing ILDs are rare, collectively, they affect a considerable number of patients, representing a significant burden of disease. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the typical chronic fibrosing ILD associated with progressive decline in lung. Other fibrosing ILDs are often associated with connective tissues diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis-ILD (RA-ILD) and systemic sclerosis-associated ILD (SSc-ILD), or environmental/drug exposure. Given the vast number of progressive fibrosing ILDs and the disparities in clinical patterns and disease features, the course of these diseases is heterogeneous and cannot accurately be predicted for an individual patient. As a consequence, the discovery of novel biomarkers for these types of diseases is a major clinical challenge. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperons that have been extensively described to be involved in fibrogenesis. Their extracellular forms (eHSPs) have been recently and successfully used as therapeutic targets or circulating biomarkers in cancer. The current review will describe the role of eHSPs in fibrosing ILDs, highlighting the importance of these particular stress proteins to develop new therapeutic strategies and discover potential biomarkers in these diseases.