- Biomarkers of exposure and effect of pollutants were analyzed in croakers Micropogonias furnieri (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) captured in winter and summer in a polluted and in a non-polluted site at the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil). Catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities (exposure biomarkers) and lipid peroxidation (effect biomarker) were analyzed in liver samples. Other two effect biomarkers were also studied: blood cells DNA damage (through comet assay and micronucleus test) and respiratory burst measurements. In a broad view, results point to an important seasonal variation of the biochemical biomarkers analyzed. However, data obtained clearly indicate that croakers collected in winter at the polluted site were subjected to a level of clastogenic agents sufficient to generate irreversible genetic damages (mutations) and impair the fish immune system.