Different Food Sources of Fructose-Containing Sugars and Fasting Blood Uric Acid Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials Journal Articles uri icon

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  • BACKGROUND: Although fructose as a source of excess calories increases uric acid, the effect of the food matrix is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of fructose-containing sugars by food source at different levels of energy control on uric acid, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched (through 11 January 2021) for trials ≥ 7 days. We prespecified 4 trial designs by energy control: substitution (energy-matched replacement of sugars in diets); addition (excess energy from sugars added to diets); subtraction (energy from sugars subtracted from diets); and ad libitum (energy from sugars freely replaced in diets) designs. Independent reviewers (≥2) extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation was used to assess the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: We included 47 trials (85 comparisons; N = 2763) assessing 9 food sources [sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), sweetened dairy, fruit drinks, 100% fruit juice, fruit, dried fruit, sweets and desserts, added nutritive sweetener, and mixed sources] across 4 energy control levels in predominantly healthy, mixed-weight adults. Total fructose-containing sugars increased uric acid levels in substitution trials (mean difference, 0.16 mg/dL;  95% CI:  0.06-0.27 mg/dL;  P = 0.003), with no effect across the other energy control levels. There was evidence of an interaction by food source: SSBs and sweets and desserts increased uric acid levels in the substitution design, while SSBs increased and 100% fruit juice decreased uric acid levels in addition trials. The certainty of evidence was high for the increasing effect of SSBs in substitution and addition trials and the decreasing effect of 100% fruit juice in addition trials and was moderate to very low for all other comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Food source more than energy control appears to mediate the effects of fructose-containing sugars on uric acid. The available evidence provides reliable indications that SSBs increase and 100% fruit juice decreases uric acid levels. More high-quality trials of different food sources are needed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02716870.


  • Ayoub-Charette, Sabrina
  • Chiavaroli, Laura
  • Liu, Qi
  • Khan, Tauseef Ahmad
  • Zurbau, Andreea
  • Au-Yeung, Fei
  • Cheung, Annette
  • Ahmed, Amna
  • Lee, Danielle
  • Choo, Vivian L
  • Blanco Mejia, Sonia
  • De Souza, Russell Jude
  • Wolever, Thomas Ms
  • Leiter, Lawrence A
  • Kendall, Cyril Wc
  • Jenkins, David Ja
  • Sievenpiper, John L

publication date

  • August 2021