Simulation-based interval chance-constrained quadratic programming model for water quality management: A case study of the central Grand River in Ontario, Canada
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Effective river water quality management and planning is a complex issue challenged by various complexities and uncertainties. A simulation-based interval chance-constrained quadratic programming (ICCQP) model is developed for the seasonal planning of water quality management (WQM) under various uncertainties. The proposed model incorporates interval quadratic programming, chance-constrained programming, and a seasonal water quality simulation model within a general framework for WQM. Uncertainties associated with the objective and the coefficients in the left-hand sides of the constraints are tackled as intervals. Meanwhile, parameter uncertainties on the right-hand sides are characterized using probability distributions. Nonlinearities in the cost function are reflected by quadratic programming. A multi-segment water quality model is used to simulate the dynamic interactions between wastewater discharges and river water quality. The proposed ICCQP-WQM model is applied in a real case study for the control of total phosphorus (TP) in the central Grand River in Ontario, Canada. The results demonstrate that the proposed model is able to incorporate uncertainties expressed as intervals and probability information into an optimization framework and provide interval solutions. Thus, different cost-effective schemes for seasonal WQM could be generated. The results show the Kitchener wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) affects the value of the objective function more than the other WWTPs in the study area. It is also found that the Kitchener WWTP's cost accounts for the highest proportion (approximately 35.1-37.9%) of the total annual cost, which implies the control of TP at the Kitchener plant is the most important to the system. Moreover, river water TP standards in spring and autumn are usually difficult to meet, indicating different TP control strategies are needed in these two seasons. The generated results are valuable for local decision makers to generate TP control strategies, and also to identify optimized solutions under various uncertainties. The proposed ICCQP-WQM model can be extended to other watersheds to support effective water quality management and planning.
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