Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the school and community characteristics associated with milk and milk alternative (MMA) consumption by Canadian youth. Methods: We analyzed self-reported data from 50,058 Canadian students participating in the
2017-2018 wave of the COMPASS survey. We used logistic and linear regression analyses to identify school- and community-level factors associated with students meeting the MMA guidelines, and factors associated with daily number of MMA servings consumed, respectively. Results: Student-level
factors were more strongly associated with MMA consumption than school- and community-level factors. Students who attended schools that provided staff with nutrition training consumed fewer daily servings of MMAs and were less likely to meet MMA guidelines. Students attending schools that
received healthy eating grants were more likely to meet MMA guidelines, whereas students attending schools that sold flavored milk in their vending machines were less likely to meet MMA guidelines. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that student-level factors have a stronger association
with MMA consumption than school or community factors. Additional research is needed to understand how factors associated with MMA consumption may influence behaviours over time, and how changes to Canada's food guide may impact youth eating habits.