Epidermal growth factor receptor deficiency: Expanding the phenotype beyond infancy
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Transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors represent a fundamental mechanism for transducing extracellular signals into the activation of signaling cascades responsible for intercellular communication, embryogenesis and tissue integrity. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a canonical member of this family, regarded for its dysregulated function in various malignancies. Here, we describe a young female born prematurely with friable and immature skin who developed chronic diarrhea, recurrent gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, as well as an ichthyotic and inflammatory papulopustular rash accompanied by alopecia. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a constitutional homozygous variant in EGFR (NM_005228.3:c1283G>A; p.[G428D]), identified as a pathogenic loss-of-function variant in three patients with EGFR deficiency. These patients succumbed to early mortality; however, the proposita's condition has stabilized, despite only supportive interventions, with dermatological improvements and reduced frequency of infections at 8 years. This report provides a clinical phenotyping of the longest surviving individual with EGFR deficiency and substantiates our understanding of the natural history of this multisystemic dermatological disorder.
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