Reduction of bromate and chlorate contaminants in water using aqueous phase corona discharge
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This work demonstrates the ability of aqueous phase corona discharge to chemically reduce bromate and chlorate ions, common disinfection byproducts, to bromide and chloride ions, respectively. A high voltage pulse was applied to a needle electrode, submerged in the target solution, to generate highly reactive oxidative and reductive species in a temperature-controlled reactor. Optimal water matrix conditions were sought through changing the solution pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentration. Additionally, several oxidative species scavengers were investigated, including methanol, ethanol, sucrose, and D-sorbitol. Chemical reduction rates were improved at low pH (3.5). The presence of dissolved oxygen significantly reduced the chemical reduction rate, and thus high solution temperature (50 °C) also achieved better chemical reduction. All oxidative species scavengers improved the chemical reduction rate; however, methanol and ethanol were superior as these compounds generate hydrogen bubbles in the presence of plasma, which deoxygenates the solution further improving the chemical reduction rate. The application of this technology to 30 μM bromate and chlorate solutions, under optimal water matrix conditions and with the addition of 72 g/L-COD methanol, achieved greater than 95% removal of the target compounds within 60 min. Increasing the initial concentration of the target compounds to 300 μM required 90 and 150 min to achieve similar chemical reductions for bromate and chlorate, respectively.
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