Hyperglycemia-Driven Inhibition of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α2 Induces Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Promoting Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes In Vivo
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BACKGROUND: Fundc1 (FUN14 domain containing 1), an outer mitochondrial membrane protein, is important for mitophagy and mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs). The roles of Fundc1 and MAMs in diabetic hearts remain unknown. The aims of this study, therefore, were to determine whether the diabetes mellitus-induced Fundc1 expression could increase MAM formation, and whether disruption of MAM formation improves diabetic cardiac function. METHODS: Levels of FUNDC1 were examined in the hearts from diabetic patients and nondiabetic donors. Levels of Fundc1-induced MAMs and mitochondrial and heart function were examined in mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose (HG, 30 mmol/L d-glucose for 48 hours), and in streptozotocin-treated cardiac-specific Fundc1 knockout mice and cardiac-specific Fundc1 knockout diabetic Akita mice, as well. RESULTS: FUNDC1 levels were significantly elevated in cardiac tissues from diabetic patients in comparison with those from nondiabetic donors. In cultured mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes, HG conditions increased levels of Fundc1, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate type 2 receptor (Ip3r2), and MAMs. Genetic downregulation of either Fundc1 or Ip3r2 inhibited MAM formation, reduced endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial Ca2+ flux, and improved mitochondrial function in HG-treated cardiomyocytes. Consistently, adenoviral overexpression of Fundc1 promoted MAM formation, mitochondrial Ca2+ increase, and mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes exposed to normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L d-glucose). In comparison with nondiabetic controls, levels of Fundc1, Ip3r2, and MAMs were significantly increased in hearts from streptozotocin-treated mice and Akita mice. Furthermore, in comparison with control hearts, diabetes mellitus markedly increased coimmunoprecipitation of Fundc1 and Ip3r2. The binding of Fundc1 to Ip3r2 inhibits Ip3r2 ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Cardiomyocyte-specific Fundc1 deletion ablated diabetes mellitus-induced MAM formation, prevented mitochondrial Ca2+ increase, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis with improved mitochondrial functional capacity and cardiac function. In mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes, HG suppressed AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Furthermore, in cardiomyocytes of Prkaa2 knockout mice, expression of Fundc1, MAM formation, and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels were significantly increased. Finally, adenoviral overexpression of a constitutively active mutant AMP-activated protein kinase ablated HG-induced MAM formation and mitochondrial dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that diabetes mellitus suppresses AMP-activated protein kinase, initiating Fundc1-mediated MAM formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cardiomyopathy, suggesting that AMP-activated protein kinase-induced Fundc1 suppression is a valid target to treat diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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